原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.zhiyubo.com 翻譯:云飛揚h 轉載請注明出處



As the skies over northeastern Syria blackened with smoke this week, as Turkish warplanes swooped down and gunfire and shelling resumed in what had briefly been an oasis of relative peace in the region, the world recognized what 36 million Kurds already knew: They had been betrayed, not for the first time, by their putative allies. In this case, the United States.

本周在敘利亞東北部的上空黑煙升起,土耳其戰機俯沖下來,槍聲和炮擊回蕩在曾一度是綠洲相對和平的地區。世界都知道,3600萬庫爾德人也已經知道:他們被他們假定的盟友背叛了,不是第一次了,。這一次,是美國。

It has been a constant theme in the history of the Kurds, an ethnic group indigenous to parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. The quest for their own country where they could freely speak their own language, a right denied them for most of the 20th century, has come to define the Kurds.

。庫爾德人是伊朗,伊拉克,敘利亞和土耳其部分地區的土著民族。在庫爾德人的歷史上,對自己的國家的追求一直是一個不變的主題。他們可以自由說自己的語言,而在20世紀的大部分時間里,其他人一直在剝奪他們的權利,這已經定義了庫爾德人。



It was a decision by President Trump on Sunday, after he spoke with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan but without consulting either the Pentagon or the State Department, that paved the way for the latest betrayal. In withdrawing a token force of American troops from an area of northeastern Syria, Trump opened the door for Erdogan’s “Operation Peace Spring” to create a 300-mile “safe zone” — safe for Turkey, that is — along the Syrian border and rid it of what Erdogan described as a Kurdish “terror army.”

這是特朗普總統在周日與土耳其總統雷杰普·塔伊普·埃爾多安進行對話后做出的一項決定,但未與五角大樓或國務院進行磋商,這為最近的背叛鋪平了道路。特朗普從敘利亞東北部地區撤出一支象征性的美軍部隊,為埃爾多安的“和平之泉”打開了大門,在敘利亞邊界沿線建立了一個300英里的“安全區”,對土耳其來說是安全的,并且擺脫了這就是埃爾多安所說的庫爾德“ 恐怖部隊”。

That army was the U.S.-backed and Kurdish-led militia known as the Syrian Democratic Forces, which had borne the brunt of the war to destroy the Islamic State group’s caliphate, a prime goal of American policy and an achievement Trump frequently claims as a personal victory. Critics, including many Republicans, denounced the move as both a moral and political debacle, a betrayal of allies who had fought alongside American troops, a humanitarian disaster in the making, and an opening for ISIS to regroup in the growing power vacuum.

該部隊是由美國支持,由庫爾德人領導的民兵組織,稱為敘利亞民主力量,首當其沖地摧毀了伊斯蘭國集團的哈里發,這是美國政策的主要目標,也是特朗普經常宣稱的個人成就勝利。包括許多共和黨在內的批評人士都譴責此舉,既是道義上和政治上的崩潰,也是與美軍并肩作戰的盟友的背叛,正在制造人道災難,而且ISIS在不斷擴大的權力真空中重組的機會。

A resolution in the United Nations Security Council condemning the Turkish invasion, supported by most European nations, was opposed by the United States — and Russia.



As Timothy Noah wrote in 2003 for Slate, after Kurdish fighters helped the U.S. topple Saddam Hussein in the expectation of finally winning an independent Kurdistan, “For Kurds, getting screwed is a tradition.”

聯合國安理會通過的一項譴責土耳其入侵的決議得到了大多數歐洲國家的支持,遭到了美國和俄羅斯的反對。正如蒂莫西·諾亞在2003年為《石板》寫的那樣,在庫爾德戰士幫助美國推翻薩達姆·侯賽因以期最終贏得獨立的庫爾德人之后,“對庫爾德人來說,搞砸是一種傳統?!?br />


Only one language could be spoken in public, one culture preserved, and that was Turkish, his version of it. Those who didn’t embrace his vision encountered his army.

只有一種語言可以在公共場合使用,一種文化得以保存,那就是他的土耳其語。那些不認同他觀點的人遭遇了他的軍隊的鎮壓。



Through the 1920s and 1930s, Atatürk’s forces slaughtered hundreds of thousands of those who rebelled against his plans, including Armenians and Kurds — whom Atatürk called “Mountain Turks,” having banned the word “Kurd” from the new Turkish vocabulary. During those same postwar decades, Kurds rebelled in Iraq, where the British had promised them their own land in the province of Mosul, and where their efforts were likewise violently suppressed.

在20世紀20年代和30年代,阿塔圖爾克的軍隊屠殺了數十萬反對他的計劃的人,包括被阿塔圖爾克稱為“山地土耳其人”的亞美尼亞人和庫爾德人。在戰后的幾十年里,庫爾德人在伊拉克造反,英國人曾承諾在摩蘇爾省給他們土地,他們也在那里遭到了暴力鎮壓。

But after decades of violent uprisings, the Kurds’ quest for their own land finally materialized after World War II, a war that Turkey (and the Kurds) largely steered clear of, which Trump noted in observing that the Kurds didn’t fight alongside America in Normandy.

但經過幾十年的暴力起義,庫爾德人對自己土地的追求終于在二戰后實現了。土耳其(和庫爾德人)基本上避開了二戰,特朗普注意到,庫爾德人沒有在諾曼底與美國并肩作戰。

On Jan. 22, 1946, with backing from the Soviet unx, the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was created in a finger of land in northwestern Iran that the Red Army had occupied. Kurdish printing presses were set up and schools opened, teaching classes in Kurdish, the first seeds planted in Kurdish soil. By the end of the year, however, the Soviets had pulled out and the Iranian shah had reclaimed Mahabad, promising more autonomy but instead executing its leaders and ending its independence.

1946年1月22日,在蘇聯的支持下,馬哈巴德的庫爾德共和國在被紅軍占領的伊朗西北部的一小塊土地上建立起來。庫爾德人建立了印鈔機,開辦了學校,用庫爾德語授課,這是在庫爾德土地上種植的第一批種子。然而,到年底時,蘇聯已經撤出,伊朗國王收回了馬哈巴德,承諾給予更多自治權,但卻處決了其領導人,結束了其獨立。



During the 1980s, the dream reemerged. A young Turkish Kurd, Abdullah ?calan, rallied thousands of Kurds to fight for an independent Kurdistan carved out of part of Turkey. The guerrilla Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK, declared war on the Turkish government and began attacking military installations and government facilities. That guerrilla war continues to this day, despite occasional cease-fires, thus far claiming 40,000 lives on both sides. New PKK offshoots, such as the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks, or TAK, target civilian facilities as well, such as Istanbul’s football stadium, lending plausibility to Erdogan’s denunciation of a Kurdish “terror army.”

在20世紀80年代,這個夢想重新出現。年輕的土耳其庫爾德人阿卜杜拉·奧賈蘭召集了數千名庫爾德人,為在土耳其部分地區建立一個獨立的庫爾德人而戰。庫爾德工人黨游擊隊向土耳其政府宣戰,并開始攻擊軍事設施和政府設施。盡管有過幾次?;?,但游擊戰仍在繼續,至今已使雙方4萬人喪生。庫爾德工人黨新分支,如庫爾德斯坦自由之鷹(,也以民用設施為目標,如伊斯坦布爾的足球場,這使得埃爾多安譴責庫爾德“恐怖軍隊”的言論更有道理。

In the Iran-Iraq War, Iran, hoping to weaken its enemy, supported Kurds fighting Saddam Hussein. Iraq expelled thousands of Kurds to Iran, but Iran sent them back in 1984. Four years later, Iranian forces helped Kurds capture the northern Iraqi city of Halabja. Saddam responded with a chemical attack — the event President George H.W. Bush referred to when he denounced Hussein’s “gassing of his own people.”

在兩伊戰爭中,伊朗為了削弱敵人,支持庫爾德人對抗薩達姆·侯賽因。伊拉克將數千名庫爾德人驅逐到伊朗,但伊朗在1984年將他們遣返。四年后,伊朗軍隊幫助庫爾德人占領了伊拉克北部城市哈拉比亞。薩達姆以化學武器攻擊作為回應。老布什總統譴責薩達姆“用毒氣殺害自己的人民”時,提到了化學武器攻擊。

In 1991, when Bush urged the Kurds in northern Iraq and the Shiites in the south “to take matters into their own hands, to force Saddam Hussein, the dictator, to step aside,” they listened and mounted a short-lived rebellion that Saddam put down through airpower, defying the no-fly zones the U.S. had proclaimed.

1991年,布什敦促伊拉克北部的庫爾德人和南部的什葉派教徒“把事情交到自己手中,迫使薩達姆·侯賽因退居二線”,他們聽從并發動了一場短暫的叛亂,指責薩達姆使用空中力量,無視美國宣布的禁飛區。



When the second President Bush announced in 2003 that the U.S. was returning to take down Saddam, the Kurds in the north again answered the call to help — and again were disappointed when the U.N. resolution establishing a post-Saddam Iraq ignored their request for an independent Kurdistan.

當美國第二任總統布什在2003年宣布美國將重返伊拉克推翻薩達姆政權時,北部的庫爾德人再次響應了援助的號召,但當聯合國決議建立后薩達姆時代的伊拉克時,他們又一次對聯合國決議無視他們要求建立一個獨立的庫爾德斯坦感到失望。

The new Iraqi constitution, however, gave Kurds limited power and autonomy as part of the Kurdish Regional Government, and a makeshift Kurdistan began functioning in the north, based in oil-rich Kirkuk. In 2014 the Kurds battled ISIS for control of the city, and joined the U.S. in the five-year fight against the caliphate.

然而,作為庫爾德地區政府的一部分,伊拉克新憲法賦予庫爾德人有限的權力和自治權,一個臨時的庫爾德斯坦開始在北部發揮作用,基地設在盛產石油的基爾庫克。2014年,庫爾德人與ISIS爭奪該市的控制權,并加入美國對哈里發的五年戰斗。



That changed on Sunday, when after a chat with Erdogan, Trump agreed to turn his back on his Kurdish allies. And while Sen. Lindsey Graham implored the nation to “pray for our Kurdish allies who have been shamelessly abandoned by the Trump administration” and the president absurdly complained that the Kurds hadn’t helped America in World War II, the Kurds were once again looking for refuge, invoking their well-worn adage: “We have no friends but the mountains.”

周日,在與埃爾多安交談后,特朗普同意放棄他的庫爾德盟友,這一情況發生了改變。雖然參議員林塞·格雷厄姆懇求美國,“祈求我們的庫爾德人的盟友已經無恥地放棄了特朗普政府”,但總統荒謬地抱怨說,庫爾德人沒有幫助美國在第二次世界大戰中,庫爾德人再次尋找避難所,調用他們的老舊的格言:“我們沒有朋友只有山?!?br />